These are usually anti-spyware or security software applications that use various forms of deception and/or unethical means or show a history of negligent false positives to goad the end user to make a purchase.
In some cases these applications maybe downloaded with some form of unwanted software at which point the rogue application is offered to the customer as a way to remove the unwanted software.
From Alfa Cleaner website:
Complete up-to-date protection from viruses, spyware, adware and hackers attacks. Other spyware removers are blind to most of the new threats. AlfaCleaner is not!
Up-to-date features: * Heuristic analysis finds and deletes the newest threats.
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* Real-time protection is a deep system driver that blocks new spyware / adware / virus activity and offers to block / allow all strange system requests. * Automatic updates keep AlfaCleaner up-to-date without bothering you.
AlfaCleaner uses false positives to scare users into purchasing the full version. Can be installed from Alfacleaner or installed from malware and windows exploits.
Rouge anti-spyware cleaner
Displaying Destop.ini files as "Bagkeys" keylogger